Sunday, August 25, 2019
Lit review - Essay Example 000 as command center for the acquisition of equipment and supplies of all the armed services Ã¢â¬â RAF, Navy and ground forces Ã¢â¬â representing a major restructuring in defense culture and processes. This major command was created precisely to improve logistics acquisition by moving from a functional to a project-based organizational structure. Under the DLO, a total of 144 Integrated Project Teams were organized, one for each type of military equipment and supplies. Each IPT has its own set of assembly staff, logisticians, engineers, contractors and financial team, operating much like a business organization. Lysons, K. and Farrington, B. (2006)note that the Purchasing and Supply Chain Management (PSCM) concept was started in February 2001 to reduce costs as soon as possible and improve overall performance by addressing the following concerns: supplies concerns consumable items or those equipment components that can be easily repaired. Even in the US Air Force, the difficulty of finding cheap consumable parts is blamed for 40 per cent of aircraft downtime. To handle this specific problem, the IPTs created the positions of supply Range Managers (RMs) under its wing to exclusively attend to the problem of high procurement costs. In effect, the Range Managers were handed the decision-making task of finding the methods of procurement and selection of suppliers that would translate into cost-efficient defense spending. As decision-makers, the Range Managers are expected to formulate measures that would cut costs and make their organization more efficient and viable. But the task of making decisions for an organization is not as easy as it seems. Any organization is a technical instrument for mobilizing human energies and directing them toward set goals. Janczak, 2005. The main function of the organization is decision-making which entails planning, evaluating and implementing. These decision-making processes may be disrupted by petty politics and
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Television in the Modern Media System - Essay Example As a matter of fact, in this rapidly-evolving world where media has spread across the globe, issues that come with mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s operations should be extensively documented. Here, the point of your argumentative claim becomes relevant. Your type of support includes reason and emotion. Hence, in order to raise the persuasive ability of your article, the intensity of emotion and the clarity of reasoning need to be maximized. In fact, the actual body of the article contains some points worth discussion. The first statement of paragraph 10 is perhaps the most vivid expression of your stance. I would like to appreciate this since you made a clear claim about your argument here; you mentioned how media has become an omnipresent activity and parents are helpless when it comes to monitoring sexual exposure towards children. The benefit of this is that most readers are not fully attentive throughout the whole reading process, so the writing must possess simple straightforward expressions of your principle idea. If one fails to do that, the reader might not be able to understand your point of view and your idea might be camouflaged by wordy expressions and complex structuring. Therefore, it is highly critical to organize and outline the viewpoint, especially in argumentative essays (Writing Position Papers). Often, you have used research statistics and figures to support your claim. You have mentioned research findings of the American population, which is reasonable since your audience is American; however, there feels a slight insufficiency of supporting statistics in your writing. This is because when one writes about an issue concerning the whole society and people, regardless of demographics, there needs to be a substantial amount of information to notify the scale of the issue and also to support oneÃ¢â¬â¢s claims.Ã
Friday, August 23, 2019
Strategic Operation Management - Essay Example Zara has three major product lines, for men, women and children. It has a creative team consisting of sourcing specialist, designers and personnel for product development. The creative team of the company work on products for the current season and they are also engaged in selecting product mix and fabric for the products. Two basic collections are prepared by Zara every year that are the winter/fall collection and the summer/spring collection. The designers of Zara showcase their designs in renowned fashion programs and shows too (Zhelyazkov, n. d.). There is enormous workload of 1000 new design and fashion every month, which is managed by development and design team of 200 employees in Zara. All these employees work from their headquarters that is Spain. This signifies that every individual produces 60 different styles per year, which means approximately 2 styles in every week. This speed is maintained at every stage of product development, which catalyses the retail sales by 200,0 00 Ã¢â¬â 300,000 in a year. Though this process followed by the company is certainly not cost-efficient, but it is compensated through the high margin on the product (Dutta, 2003). The unique selling proposition (USP) of Zara is that it can take its designs from drawing board to the retail stores around the world in a span of just two weeks. The designs are initially sketched and dedicated through the Computer-aided (CAD) system, with the help of which samples are made by the skilled workers who are working within the design facility (Ferdows, 2003). All the sewing operations take place in the factories owned by the company. The product development structure stated in Figure 1 below is helpful in understanding the product designing and development or production process (Zhelyazkov, n. d.). Figure 1: Product Development Source: (Slack and Lewis, 2002, p. 247) Product development process involves input of operations resource, which includes developing capabilities and rapid change in technology. Moreover, considering the market requirements also play significant role in this process, this is what Zara actively does (Slack and Lewis, 2002). The product development phase beings with market research. This is combined with visiting universities campus and other venues such as discos for observing the fashion trend of the young leaders, sales reports and daily feedbacks (Dutta, 2002). Apart from this, significant investment in information technology and different communication infrastructure has been availed by the company for gathering information on customer demand. The sales managers and associates have customised handheld computers for informing the headquarters regarding daily sales report on real-time basis. The garment styling starts as soon as the designing team receive calls from stores regarding the needs and the team forecast the future demands with the help of these calls. The commercial manager sits with the designers to forecast design demand, fabric , cost and selling price (Dutta, 2002). Resource and Process implications In this section the sources and the processes would be discussed. The fabrics required in the company and other inputs are purchased from external suppliers. There are purchasing offices of Zara in Hong Kong and Barcelona. Apart from this, there are also sourcing personals in Spain, but Europe has been always the top
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Industrial and Personnel Psychology Essay 1. Personal biographical characteristics of note are factors that describe an individual. Factors such as age, gender, marital status and tenure. These characteristics have an impact on the attitudes that an individual may have towards work and dependent variable such as productivity, absenteeism, and turnover and job satisfaction. The relationship between age and job performance is of great importance because it is believed that job performance decreases as age increases. Though not all employers have perceptions of older employees. From a positive perspective it is noted that older employees have more experience, judgment, ethics and commitment. In addition, with older employees, labour turnover is reduced. Because of their longer tenure within the organization they tend to enjoy increased wages, pension and many other benefits and are therefore less likely to leave. With regards to absenteeism and older employees, the evidence is however mixed. Although there are decreases in avoidable absenteeism rates compared to younger employees, there is an increase in unavoidable rates due to poor health due to age, and longer recovery periods. However from a negative point it is noted that older employees lack flexibility, there is a decrease in their productivity due to decreased speed, agility, strength and co-ordination and resistance to change in a changing environment. Consequently, organizations are reluctant to hire older employees. In addition, they tend to retrench them first when it comes to downsizing. Gender in job performance has no evidence that it affects job satisfaction. However there is a difference in work schedules because women mostly prefer part time work or work flexibility due to family responsibilities. With regards to absenteeism women usually have a higher rate of absenteeism than men as women traditionally care for the family. For example when children are sick, it is the mothers who tend to take off work in order to take care of such sick children. Married employees generally have a decrease in absenteeism, turnover and an increase in job satisfaction. This may be due to increased responsibilities. With regards to tenure, there is a positive relationship between seniority and job performance and a negative relationship between tenure and absenteeism. That is an increase in tenure and seniority tends to lead to better performance and an increase in tenure to lead to decrease in turnover. People are organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable and expensive resource, but they are the most difficult element of an organization to manage. Individuals are almost infinitely different, they act differently in different circumstances and are, in many ways, entirely unpredictable. This means that, unlike machines, they are not interchangeable or able to be easily designed to do the jobs required of them. In terms of the organization, what we are interested in is the way in which people behave at work-that they perform effectively in pursuit of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. The starting point for this is an understanding of what makes people behave in the way they do. Although psychologists do not agree on a single definition of personality, there is some consensus that it is concerned with characteristics patterns of behavior and modes of thinking that determine a personÃ¢â¬â¢s adjustment to the environment (Hilgard et al 1979:108). Two features of the above definition are noteworthy. In the first place, the word Ã¢â¬Å"characteristicÃ¢â¬ suggests a degree of performance in personality. In the second place, Ã¢â¬Å"environmentÃ¢â¬ suggests that personality is displayed in a social and physical context. Beyond this consensus, there is a great deal disagreement over the development, structure and dynamics of personality. The correct interpretation and use of the results of personality measures and tests depends a great deal on the theory or approach on which the instruments are based. Without this knowledge, the description of personality may well be miused. Personality can therefore be referred to a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s whole psychological system. It looks at the whole person rather than at the sum of the individual parts. It is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his or her unique adjustments to his or her environment. An altogether different approach to personality concentrates on identifying and classifying those features that individuals may share. The different categories or types serve to emphasise the similarities within each group and the differences between the groups. These attempts to classify personality features are often referred to as the type or trait approach. There are a number of personality determinants, namely, Heredity, the Environment, or the Situation. Heredity is the process of transmitting biological traits from parent to offspring through genes, the basic units of heredity. Heredity also refers to the inherited characteristics of an individual, including traits such as height, eye color, and blood type. Heredity accounts for why offspring look like their parents: when two dogs mate, for example, they have puppies, not kittens. If the parents are both Chihuahuas, the puppies will also be Chihuahuas, not great Danes or Labrador retrievers. The puppies may be a little taller or shorter, a little lighter or a lot heavier than their parents are. Their faces may look a little different, or they may have different talents and temperaments. In all the important characteristics, howeverÃ¢â¬âthe number of limbs, arrangement of organs, general size, fur typeÃ¢â¬âthey will share the traits of their parents. The principles of heredity hold true not only for a puppy but also for a virus, a roundworm, a pansy, or a human. Genetics is the study of how heredity works and, in particular, of genes. A gene is a section of a long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, and it carries information for the construction of a protein or part of a protein. Through the diversity of proteins they code for, genes influence or determine such traits as eye color, the ability of a bacterium to eat a certain sugar, or the number of peas in a pod. A virus has as few as a dozen genes. A simple roundworm has 5000 to 8000 genes, while a corn plant has 60,000. The construction of a human requires an estimated 50,000 genes. Personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity however, as otherwise they would remain the same throughout life despite the experiences we have. Environment is referred to all of the external factors affecting an organism. These factors may be other living organisms (biotic factors) or nonliving variables (abiotic factors), such as temperature, rainfall, day length, wind, and ocean currents. The interactions of organisms with biotic and abiotic factors form an ecosystem. Even minute changes in any one factor in an ecosystem can influence whether or not a particular plant or animal species will be successful in its environment. Organisms and their environment constantly interact, and both are changed by this interaction. Like all other living creatures, humans have clearly changed their environment, but they have done so generally on a grander scale than have all other species. Some of these human-induced changesÃ¢â¬âsuch as the destruction of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s tropical rain forests to create farms or grazing land for cattleÃ¢â¬âhave led to altered climate patterns. In turn, altered climate patterns have changed the way animals and plants are distributed in different ecosystems. Scientists study the long-term consequences of human actions on the environment, while environmentalistsÃ¢â¬âprofessionals in various fields, as well as concerned citizensÃ¢â¬âadvocate ways to lessen the impact of human activity on the natural world. Situation is one of the determinants of personality which influences the effect of heredity and environment on personality. Personality, which is generally stable, often changes in different situations.Ã For example, we may behave very differently at a party with our friends as opposed to how we would do at a social gathering of work colleagues and our managers. 2. Attitude refers to an opinion or general feeling about something. Attitudes are, essentially feelings towards people or things. How people feel, what they believe, what they intend to do, and whether and how they do it may all be connected, and may all be related to the process of perception. To try to reduce the confusion in this area over the use of words and concepts such as Ã¢â¬Å"feelingsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"beliefsÃ¢â¬ , Fishbein (19670 put forward the following hierarchical model. Beliefs What we think about people, things, relationships etc Ã¢â¬Å"My work provides no challengeÃ¢â¬ Attitudes Affective responses to those people, things, relationships etc. Ã¢â¬Å"I see work only as a means to getting moneyÃ¢â¬ Intentions Congnitive states Ã¢â¬Å"I will look for my challenge in my leisure timeÃ¢â¬ Behavior or Action Observable events Ã¢â¬Å"I take up mountaineeringÃ¢â¬ Attitudes are learned. They derive from our personal reaction to information and events, which manifest themselves as beliefs and feelings about a particular subject. We learn many of our attitudes when we are very young. They are conditioned by those around us and the conditions or situations in which we find ourselves. Some-particularly feelings-are so strong that they stay with stay with us and affect us for the rest of our lives. The range of influences is complex, but it includes the following: * The groups to which we belong-most notably, in early life, the family, but also friendship groups, work groups * Education * Life experiences- particularly the most profound personal ones such as bereavement, etc. but also those experiences which we observe e. g on Tv, or read about. We are aware, too, that our attitudes change over time as a result of the influence of the above factors. For example, it is very often the case that young people have more liberal attitudes than older people, but as they enter work and acquire family and financial commitments and responsibilities they tend to become more Ã¢â¬Å"conservativeÃ¢â¬ . One of the key elemen ts of management in organizations is how to modify or change peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. This is central to such features as motivation, securing effective performance, introducing change, etc. whilst as noted above, attitudes do not necessarily condition behaviour, and they are a significant determinant. In organizations, managers use attitude survey to measure and thereby predict behaviour. Managers use information gathered in attitude surveys to guide them in decisions relative to employees. Attitude surveys elicit responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work- groups, supervisors and or the organization. Attitude surveys provide managers with valuable feedback on how workers perceive working conditions, and alert them to problems or employee intentions early so that action can be taken in time. Increasingly, attitudinal surveys are being used within organizations to find out about the potential reactions of staff to particular courses of action (for example, organizational change) or to form judgments about their suitability for particular posts (in a similar way to how personality tests are used). Operational methods for attitude surveys generally seek to measure fire components for each belief. Thus, attitudes to work could be measured as follows: * Strength of feeling about the job itself. The strength with which various attitudes are held about different aspects of the job which are listed, measured on perhaps a seven point scale, from Ã¢â¬Å"agree totallyÃ¢â¬ through neutral to Ã¢â¬Å"disagree totallyÃ¢â¬ . * Value of job to self. Evaluating various aspects of the job, again, but in relation to its meaning to the individual. * Social factors. Attitudes and behaviour do not depend on inner perceptions alone, but also upon surrounding social pressures-the personÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of what others think he/she should do. The social factors must be investigated in order to understand all the factors determining behaviour. * Overall attitude An overall assessment of the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes to the contex of the job and to work itself, for example, the value and meaning it has in his/ her life. This is a useful measure as it allows more generalized attitudes to the job to be explored. * Intended behaviour Potential reactions to different scenarios about the job or its context. Although hypothetical, this prediction makes an interesting correlation with actual behaviour. Surveys must have a very clear specification of what they are seeking to measure. Just as with personality tests, there is the ever present danger that the way in which questions are phrased, or the underlying assumptions made, will influence the outcome. Job satisfaction and its opposite, job dissatisfaction, refer to the attitudes and feelings job holders have towards their work. Morale can be viewed as a state of mind dependent on the dependent on the degree of job satisfaction experienced by an individual or group. There is general agreement that job dissatisfaction can have harmful effects on both job holders and the organization. Research has associated job dissatisfaction with all the indicators of low morale-high labour turnover, skills wastage, absenteeism, high accident rates, poor timekeeping and a lack of commitment to quality. An individual with low job satisfaction may suffer frustration and stress. Although stress may arise from many quarters, it is the inability to deal with and manage stress that afflicts the individual who suffers job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction is determined by a number of factors namely, mentally challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions, and supportive colleagues. Research has shown that employees prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their abilities and skills. Characteristics such as freedom, feedback and a variety of tasks make work mentally challenging and allow employees to feel pleasure and satisfaction. On other hand, jobs that are not mentally challenging create boredom, frustration and feelings of failure. Employees want rewards (e. g. pay, promotions) that they perceive as just and in line with their expectations. Satisfaction will occur if pay is seen as based on job demands, skill and community standards. It is not the actual amount of pay that counts, but rather the perception of fairness. Individuals that also perceive promotional decisions as fair will be job satisfied. Employees are concerned with working conditions that are comfortable and that enable one to do an optimal job. Environmental factors such as temperature, light, noise should not be too extreme. Factors such as proximity to home, cleanliness, technology and adequate tools, help increase job satisfaction. As well as tangible achievements, employees also work for social interaction. Therefore having friendly and supportive co-workers and superiors also lead to increased job satisfaction. On many occasions managersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in job satisfaction centers on its effect on employee performance. Therefore studies have been made to identify the relationships between satisfaction and performance. Organized studies in particular have focused on the effect of satisfaction on the dependent variables such as Productivity, Absenteeism and Turnover. There is no real proof that satisfaction leads to productivity. The saying Ã¢â¬Å"a happy worker is a productive workerÃ¢â¬ is wishful thinking. Often productivity leads to satisfaction and not the other way around. Productivity leads to increase in rewards, recognition, which in turn increases satisfaction. Satisfaction may lead to productivity on an organization level rather than on an individual level. Dissatisfied workers are more likely to be absent. This relationship can be affected however by sick leave benefits which might encourage workers to be absent. While satisfied employees are less likely to leave work. This can however be affected by, labour market conditions, expectations about alternative job offers and length of tenure. Level of satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover for superior employees as more effort is made to keep these individuals. Satisfaction-turnover relationship is also affected by the individuals disposition towards life. If two people are dissatisfied the positive one is more likely to leave.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
I am choosing to answer this unit in essay form Essay Personal hygiene can be described as the skill of maintaining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body; by grooming and keeping it clean and attractive in appearance. This skill helps to increase a personÃ¢â¬â¢s self- esteem, confidence and well- being and physical health. Good personal hygiene reduces any risks of skin complaints, unpleasant smells and bacterial or parasitic infection and it is important to encourage the individuals that I support to maintain their hygiene so that those risks are lowered. I also believe that encouraging an individual to take pride in their appearance may help them to build on their confidence as a person and contributes to a general feeling of comfort in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own body and well- being both mentally and physically. Encouraging my clients to take control of their own personal hygiene also ensures that they are making their own choices and decisions about their preferred ways in which to carry out their personal care; for example where an individual chooses to wash, and what product they may want to use. Bathing and showering also promote circulation in the body; exercises muscles and can create a relaxing sensation. Poor personal hygiene can have many effects on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and mental health. Not washing or drying skin effectively can cause it to break down; in turn this could cause a skin infection. Fungal infections can occur when skin is not cleaned and dried correctly or if nails are not kept clean or cut regularly. Fungal infections may occur if hair is not washed regularly and a simple thing like not washing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hands after using the toilet could cause infections in the eyes if the individual itches their eyes. Poor oral hygiene can cause gum infections, a lot of pain and removal of teeth as well as bad breath. In severe cases poor personal hygiene could be the cause of an individual experiencing skin infection so acute that they have to be hospitalised. Poor personal hygiene could also start and spread illnesses through contact with food and consumables. This list is not exhaustive. Having poor personal hygiene can affect an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sell-esteem and contribute to feelings of depression or anxiety. Poor personal hygiene could also cause an individual to shy away from society, a person with bad body or clothes odour can cause society to react in a negative way towards them or even judge them as an individual. Having poor personal hygiene can affect the way in which an individual interacts with others and it could cause them to become alienated, embarrassed and in turn they can experience low self-esteem and low self-confidence. All of these factors could contribute to the individual finding it difficult to establish or maintain relationships with others and being generally unhappy. When supporting my clients with their personal care I am careful to firstly ask them what their preferences are and if they feel well or able to have a wash, bath or shower. Bathing or showering may be in a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s care plan but that does not mean that that client chooses to bath or shower every day; they may want to have a strip wash instead. Being sensitive to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own skills with regard to washing is also important in maintaining their independence so I always inform my clients that I am there to support them if they need me to do anything in particular and to let me know if they do once I have established what they can do for themselves. I have supported a client that required assistance with washing their hair on a weekly basis and I happened to be the team member who carried out the personal care every week but on coming back to work form annual leave and visiting the client I noticed that the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s hair was quite greasy and obviously hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been washed. I sat with my client and after establishing that she was well asked her if she would like me to wash her hair as I had plenty of time and reminded her of how good she felt after IÃ¢â¬â¢d washed her hair in the past. While we were in the bathroom and I was washing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s hair I asked her if she felt ok and if she felt comfortable with the other members of my team supporting her with washing her hair. My client said that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel comfortable or safe with somebody else washing her hair because they hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t seen the way that it was done and that when I was not able to attend that particular visit she chose not to ask my other team members for support with washing her hair. On drying my clientÃ¢â¬â¢s hair I remarked Ã¢â¬Å"now does that feel better? Ã¢â¬ after which my client replied that it felt great. After we had finished in the bathroom I approached the subject by asking my client what she thought about organising another member of my team being present while I washed her hair so that if I was away from work for any reason, somebody else would be able to assist her with her personal care. My client thought that this would be a good idea and I organised that happening with my team leader shortly afterwards. By approaching the situation with her preference and needs in mind and focussing on them and not my thoughts and being careful not to embarrass her, we were able, together to find a solution for the future visits and ensure that both her well- being and physical health were upheld. When supporting a person with their personal care it is imperative to treat them with respect and to treat them as individuals. Not all individuals have a clear understanding of the importance of good personal hygiene and some people may have not thought about the importance of maintaining theirs for a number of reasons; these could include having a learning disability, head injury or a physical disability or mental health issue. I try to empower the people that I support as that was a mission statement of the company that I work for, and informing my clients about the many factors that make up good promotion of personal hygiene enables them to make their own decisions about theirs. The factors could include: The importance of health, social life and psychological well-being. The importance of being independent. The importance of reducing the risk of causing or spreading infection and illness. The importance of keeping personal hygiene equipment clean and suitable for the job. Supporting people with their personal care is a very private matter and one that I do not take lightly; I have empathised and thought about how it would feel if I needed somebody to help me with my daily ablutions and to be completely honest; although I am somebody that has assisted many people with their personal care over many years the idea of somebody helping me with mine makes me feel quite uncomfortable. I try to remember this when I assist people with their personal care. Our organisation fits gender to gender when co-ordinating support visits as much as possible which helps to maintain a personÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity and our clientÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences are recorded in their care plans for all of our team to see so that their choices are upheld and any religious or cultural beliefs are respected. I often assist with intimate personal hygiene and always ask the client if they are comfortable with me assisting them at first, and if they can carry out their own intimate care. It is amazing how many people I have seen going into a personal care routine at full flow before establishing first with the client about what they can do for themselves. I always use my personal protective equipment which includes gloves and I am always careful to cover up my client as much as possible during the personal care; keeping them warm and maintaining their dignity. I have supported clients at home that have their personal care supported in busy lounges with family members milling around here and there and have tried with my team leader and Management to organise a privacy screen in the past and where this is not available I stop all personal care and cover my client up when people are coming close to the vicinity of where the personal care is taking place. I also talk to the client about everyday matters so as to take the focus away from the personal care. Others may be involved with supporting my clients with their personal hygiene and these may include themselves firstly, their partners, friends, relatives, other team members, a continence support worker or a district nurse. There are risks to my own health when I am supporting somebody with their personal hygiene and these include the spreading of germs and infections through bodily fluids or airborne spray and a risk of injury when supporting a client with mobility assistance needs or challenging behaviour. The risks can be reduced firstly by the adequate and correct training and my competence. Using the correct hand washing procedure reduces the risk of my clients spreading infection and the use if my PPE also reduces the risk of me becoming infected. I am careful not to cut a client when shaving in case their blood infects me and I am careful around any open wounds. When disposing of dressings or soiled continence pads I am careful and Ã¢â¬Å"double bagÃ¢â¬ them, which means putting them in two plastic bags and I dispose of them in the correct bin and change my gloves afterwards. I dispose of my used PPE and clean my hands thoroughly after supporting with personal care as I may come into contact with others and other things such as client folders that could carry infection. When assisting people with their personal care I support them in accordance with their moving and handling risk assessments and their care plan so as to reduce a risk of injury to myself through faulty equipment or not using equipment correctly, I always check inspection dates on equipment. I have attended training on how to deal with challenging behaviour and have de-escalation skills which reduce a risk of harm to me. There could be many underlying issues that are the reason for individuals having poor personal hygiene and these could include a person being in pain in certain areas where they would wash but choose not to because of the pain that they experience when doing so, a person may not have had any education with regard to personal hygiene or they may not believe that it is important to have good personal hygiene. Cosmetics are expensive and an individual may not be able to afford washing products to clean themselves or their clothes. An individual could be experiencing abuse and because of this chooses to cover up and refuse assistance with personal care, or could be experiencing depression and low self- esteem so has no interest in their appearance. Addressing the issues that are beneath a personÃ¢â¬â¢s poor personal hygiene should be done in a suitable manner, for example; if a person lacks the finances to buy toiletries I could sensitively ask if they thought it would be a good idea to look at their expenditure and budget to assist with managing it or to get in touch with their financial care provider to find out if any more resources were available to them. I would report any suspicion of abuse to my line manager immediately and monitoring of the client would be required. I could try to get the message over of how important good personal hygiene is and the factors listed previously with an individual that has depression or low self-esteem. I could encourage an individual in pain to visit their GP to address the cause of the pain and therefore making it more comfortable for them to wash. Each issue of poor personal hygiene is a bespoke one and should be dealt with with the individuals dignity in mind and with their choices and beliefs upheld.
Adjustment Disorder with Disturbance of Conduct Case Study Identifying the Problem Bobby is 12-year-old boy. He was referred to counseling due to his recent onset of disruptive behaviors. BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s parents recently divorced and currently he lives with his mother and a 1-year-old sister. During the last five minutes of the sixth session, he confessed that he hated his baby sister and he thought of killing and harming her. He reported that about a month ago, he made his sister sick by giving her a chocolate laxative. He also reported that he did not inform his mother about what he had done to his sister. His mother thought that his baby sister had a stomach virus. He stated that what he did was wrong. Bobby felt that his baby sister changed his life to the worse. He wants her to go away. He added that he did not want to hurt her today. BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s parents has divorced recently which is a substantial change in his family life. There is no enough information or description about his disruptive behaviors except that they were severe enough to bring him to therap y. Additionally, he has homicidal ideation of killing his baby sister and violated her rights by giving her laxative which was luckily not life threatening. Bobby was diagnosed with Adjustment Disorder with Disturbance of Conduct. People including children develop this disorder due to a reaction of major stress. The intensity of this disorder depends on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition, susceptibility, previous experiences and coping skills. Adjustment disorder lasts for six months. The symptoms may continue dependent on the stressor and its consequences. The divorce of his parents is unquestionably will have a long lasting effect on Bobby and his baby sister. Bobby has some of the feature of oppositional defiant disorder such as disobedience and opposition to authority figures; it does not include some of more severe behaviors such as violating the basic right of others or age appropriate social norms. When the behaviors meet both disordersÃ¢â¬â¢ symptoms, the conduct disorder take precedence and ODD is not diagnosed. I would schedule a same day session with Bobby and his parents to discuss the seriousness of the problem. I would explore all the concerns I have regarding the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s safety and depends on the outcome of that meeting, I will determine to call CPS. My responsibility as a therapist is to take each case seriously regardless whether Bobby is going to carry out his homicidal ideation toward his baby sister. Nevertheless, Bobby is having real feeling of hate toward his sister for a whole year. He is not getting used to having her in his life. During this meeting, I will learn from the parents regarding any recent changes in his health, and include his treating physician. In regards to the parents I would be cautious regarding their quality of care toward their children. I need to know whether there is a possibility of neglect and carelessness or that the parents, especially the mother, is suspecting any intention of Bobby to hurt his sister. They must be given the benefit of the doubt. Within that same vein of thinking, as a therapist, I must be cautious of accusing the parents of neglect due to the serious and could alter the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ life. Ethical Decision Making Model The author elected to employee the 7 step Kitchner Ethical Decision Making Model (1984) to apply to the aforementioned vignette. 1. Problem or dilemma: be aware of the different perspectives that may be used identify the problem. It is the duty of the therapist to take BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s intension in homicidal ideation toward his baby sister seriously, while may not be serious about his homicidal ideations, it is important to ensure that baby sister is safe. It is important that this therapist ensure that BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling is not malicious. Sibling abuse can be physical, is the physical, emotional or sexual. It can vary from mild aggression such as shoving or severe such as using weapons or deliberately try to hurt their siblings (Frazier Hayes, 1994). Parents usually are not aware of the problem because either they are working outside the home or they assume that it is a sibling rivalry, which they conceive as normal (Strauss, Gelles, 1994). The difference between sibling abuse and sibling rivalry is that sibling may argue or call each other names but the main difference is that it become and abusive relationship when one child is always the victim and the other is always the aggressor. The result of sibl ing abuse is long lasting that may last to adulthood. Although BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s sister is a baby and does not know what was going on, and that Bobby said that he did not want to kill her today, his anger may trigger this urge and think of killing her again. This therapist does not feel that the baby sister is safe without informing the parents and authority to prevent the next blow (Schneider, Ross, Graham, Zielinski, 2005). As a court mandated reporter it is my duty to report suspected child abuse within 24 hours. However, I have mixed feeling regarding this dilemma. Bobby is my client and by obeying the law, I am preaching the confidentiality and the trust that we built together through the last six sessions. Reporting this information may result in taking the baby out of the home. Would working with parents to ensure the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s safety be enough to resolve the issue? After all, the parents are divorced and Bobby may become angrier and more determined to hurt his baby sister. This family went through rough time, as is; however, having a mental disorder, being a teenager, I feel that he present an immediate danger to his sister. Bobby says that he is not thinking about killing her Ã¢â¬Å"todayÃ¢â¬ is not guaranteed and the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s safety is in jeopardy. Thus, CPS should be contacted and conferred with in accordance to the APA code of Ethics: As Ethical Standard 5.02 states: Psychologists have a primary obligation and take reasonable precautions to respect the confidentiality rights of those with whom they work (2010). At times, the value of confidentiality will conflict with other important values. Such a conflict may arise when a psychologist receives information concerning child abuseinformation that may be helpful or necessary to stop the abuse and protect the child. It is also important to schedule separate emergency sessions with the parents and their children to provided support and offer psychoeducation regarding the process. According to, the California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting ACT (CANRA), located in California Penal Code Sections 11164 11174.3., states that mandated reporters should be knowledgeable of their duty to report. The law states that Ã¢â¬Å"when the victim is a child (a person under the age of 18) and the perpetrator is any person (including a child), the following types of abuse must be reported by all legally mandated reporters: Physical abuse (PC 11165.6) is defined as physical injury inflicted by other than accidental means on a child, or intentionally injuring a child.Ã¢â¬ . Additionally, child abuse must be reported if Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦has knowledge of or observes a child in his or her professional capacity, or within the scope of his or her employment whom he or she knows or reasonably suspects has been the victim of child abuse or neglectÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (PC 11166[a]). Ã¢â¬Å"Reasonable suspicionÃ¢â¬ occurs when Ã¢â¬Å"it is objectively reasonable for a person to ente rtain such a suspicion based upon facts that could cause a reasonable person in a like position, drawing when appropriate on his or her training and experience, to suspect child abuseÃ¢â¬ (PC 11166[a]). 2. Identify the potential issues involved Consider: autonomy/beneficence/Nonmaleficence/justice. The first moral principle that applies to this situation is autonomy. In order for Bobby to grow, he needs to be able to make his own decisions and not rely on his therapist to make decisions for him. Corey, Corey and Callanan (2003) stated, Ã¢â¬Å"respect for autonomy entails acknowledging the right of another to choose and act in accordance with his or her wishesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (p.16). If I report the homicidal ideation and possible physical abuse then I am not acting in accordance with Bobby and his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and therefore I am not promoting autonomy. I feel very strongly about fostering independent relationships, which causes me to question which decision is best for Bobby. The very real issue of the therapist needing to break BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s confidentiality and thus his autonomy is unfortunate but necessary. The different issues involved include Bobby homicidal ideation toward his baby sister and the real possibility that he could attempt to kill her. There is a possibility that Bobby is planning to kill his sister, if that the case, then something has to be done to protect the sister from him. Another issue include the possibility of Bobby having a more serious mental illness; his parents do not have to cope with that alone. It would be beneficent to help them through providing the right treatment, which involve therapy, training and medication if necessary to help build positive environment and deal with the disorder early in BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There is also the possibility that Bobby does not mean what he was saying, if this is the case, Bobby could suffer egregiously and emotionally and so are his parents. Furthermore, the therapist could lose Bobby as a client as a result of the unjust accusation and the subsequent mandated reporting of the claim. However, such a loss, while undesirable is acceptable as the therapist followed the proper code of conduct regarding mandated reporting and nonmalfecience. The therapist will on the same day schedule an individual session with Bobby and assess the client for homicidal ideation and then notify the proper authorities. Nonmaleficence can support either reporting the abuse or not reporting the abuse. In order to prevent physical harm to the baby, the therapist would have to report the abuse. On the other hand, if the therapist does not report the abuse Bobby, his sister may suffer and may be killed. What if BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s actions of giving his sister harmful substance were a one-time action that will never happen again? Reporting may cause Bobby suffers harm that could have been avoided. The principle of beneficence can also support both courses of action. On one hand, if I report the abuse I am promoting the safety of the baby. On the other hand, if I do not report the abuse I am promoting BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests and ensuring that he will not be separated from his mother. Fidelity would support not reporting the abuse because it would require the therapist to break the trust of my client. She has a responsibility to her client and breaking BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s trust would mean that the therapist honoring her responsibility as a professional. On the other hand, veracity would support reporting the abuse because the therapist was truthful from the start with the client when she provided him with informed consent. In the informed consent, the therapist explained that there were limits to confidentiality. There is an obvious conflict in the moral principles in this ethical dilemma. While some of the principle support reporting the abuse, others support not reporting the abuse. To raise even more conflict some of the principles can support both decisions. The therapist sees clear contradictions between fidelity and veracity, nonmaleficence and beneficence and autonomy and beneficence. Fidelity says not to break the trust of the client, while veracity says that she can because she outlined the limits in my informed consent. Just as nonmaleficence could support not reporting the abuse to avoid harm to BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional state, but beneficence would say that the therapist not promoting the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s physical well-being. Beneficence can also contradict with autonomy because if I promote the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s physical safety by reporting the abuse then I am not honoring the client BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes, which is not supporting his autonomy. 3. Review the relevant ethical guidelines. Is there one or should there be one? The client is an adolescent who has notified the therapist that he hated his baby sister and that he had homicidal ideation toward her. He gave her laxative and made her ill a month ago but he said he did not want to kill her today. In deference to section 11165.3 of the California Penal Code: Ã¢â¬Å"any mandated reporter who has knowledge of or who reasonably suspects that mental suffering has been inflicted upon the child or that his or her emotional well-being is endangered in any other way may report the known or suspected instance of child abuse or neglect to an agencyÃ¢â¬ (2013). Since the therapist has an indication, that homicidal ideation could be occurring in the home, the therapist is mandated to report that information. In addition, the APA code of Ethics (2010) stipulates in section 5.02: Psychologists have a primary obligation and take reasonable precautions to respect the confidentiality rights of those with whom they work. At times, the value of confidentiality wil l conflict with other important values. Such a conflict may arise when a psychologist receives information concerning child abuse.Ã¢â¬ Reporting the information to proper authorities will likely be helpful or necessary to stop the abuse and protect the child. In deference to the nineteen seventy-four Tarasoff case ruling, the mother should also be notified of possible danger. 4. Obtain consultation. Prior to reporting the therapist would seek consultation from fellow therapists, CPS and the APA to seek ethical and legal perspectives. In addition, she would refer to an ethical decision making model to assist in the decision process. Whether or not there is any indication on knowledge of the brother is abusing his sister and considering as just sibling rivalry. The therapist concern is that the boy is having enough time with the baby alone without any adult supervision to give her the laxative. Additionally, does the mother know that her son is cruel to his sister but she is afraid of revealing it for the fear that he may be taken away from her? 5. Consider possible and probable courses of action. Probable courses of action include: Emergency individual sessions with each family member will be scheduled within 24 hours of learning about the homicidal ideation. During the emergency session, the therapist would immediately assess Bobby and the respective family members. In addition, the therapist would assess BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s cognition and remind him that he signed an informed consent form, which highlighted the exceptions to confidentiality. If it appears that the client intends to harm his sister the therapist while in session will call the clients treating physician and confer about the next course of action. If there is no time and the client is definitely going to hurt his sister, then separation and removing Bobby temporarily is appropriate. In addition, a mutually agreed upon plan between the therapist and Bobby needs to be in place to ensure that Bobby may refer to it whenever he feels the need to hurt his sister. As there has been a possibility of homicidal ideation by Bobby, child protective services (CPS) must be called within 24 hours. As mentioned previously, the mother according to the Tarasoff ruling should also be notified that there is a possible threat to her baby daughter and should be provided with the support they need to cope with the issue. Follow up sessions with the therapist should also be scheduled 6. Enumerate the consequences of various decisions The therapist could ignore what Bobby said, which could cause further harm to the baby sister. If Bobby decided to physically abuse his sister or gave her laxative or more potent substances then baby would have to continue to suffer from his actions. One of the consequences of reporting Bobby that should be considered is that Bobby may hate his sister even more and would carry out his ideation and actually kill her. On the other hand, if BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s homicidal ideation is just an empty threats, Bobby could be affected emotionally and mentally to such an accusation. In addition, Bobby may refuse to come to therapy and not trust this therapist or any other therapists. Nevertheless, telling the therapist about his feeling toward his sister and wanting to kill her should be considered a Ã¢â¬Å"cry for helpÃ¢â¬ and should be treated with respect. The question of protecting BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s confidentiality arises due to his confession, however: according to the APA code of Ethics: As Ethical Standard 5.02 states, Psychologists have a primary obligation and take reasonable precautions to respect the confidentiality rights of those with whom they work. At times, the value of confidentiality will conflict with other important values. Such a conflict may arise when a psychologist receives information concerning child abuseinformation that may be helpful or necessary to stop the abuse and protect the child (2010). Ã¢â¬ In addition, if he were able to comprehend the information I would go over the informed consent form with Bobby, which highlighted the necessity of contacting proper authorities regarding the homicidal ideation. Breaking BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s confidentiality could prove to cause him to react emotionally and his trust in the therapist could be broken. It could be very difficult to reclaim or develop trust in Bobby which cou ld hinder the therapeutic process, however if the therapist believes that abuse is occurring she has the law and the code of ethics on her side. 7. Decide what appears to be the best course of action After the therapist had conducted the emergency sessions and discussed the concern with Bobby, the therapist would review the issue(s) with her peers, refer to the APA ethical guidelines and consult with the APA attorneys and CPS, she would then likely call the proper authorities. If Bobby claims that, he was exaggerating and that he did not mean it literally. The therapist has to be cautious and ensure the safety of the baby and reassess Bobby to see whether the initial diagnosis is still appropriate. My initial response is to report this information immediately. Ã¢â¬Å"Failure to Report an abuse result in a misdemeanor punishable by up to six months in county jail and/or up to a $1000 fine (P.C. 11166[c]). He or she may also be found civilly liable for damages, especially if the child-victim or another child is further victimized because of the failure to report (Landeros vs. Flood (1976) 17C.3d399). Furthermore PC 11166.01[b] states that Ã¢â¬Å"any mandated reporter who willfully fails to report abuse or neglect, or any person who impedes or inhibits a report of abuse or neglectÃ¢â¬ ¦ where that abuse or neglect results in death or great bodily injury, shall be punished by not more than one year in a county jail, by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment.Ã¢â¬ What I understood from this lengthy definition is that if I had any suspicion that the baby was not safe that I should report (CANRA, 1980). Finally, if I did not report his homicidal ideation I would be sending a wrong message to Bobby and may think that is acceptable to have those feeling about his sister. As a therapist, I am dealing with the dilemma of fulfilling my legal duty to report and protect the baby sister rather than attempting to work with Bobby and doing what is in the best interest for his well being. Reference The Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act (CANRA), 1980.Ã www.leginfo.ca.gov/calaw.html
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Naturalism in Jack London's "To Build a Fire" This essay has problems with format When Jack London wrote "To Build a Fire" he embraced the idea of naturalism because it mirrored the events of daily life. Naturalism showed how humans had to be wary at every corner because at anytime death could be there, waiting for them to make a mistake and forfeit their lives. He used naturalism, the most realistic literary movement, to show how violent and uncaring nature really is and how no matter what you do nature will always be there. London also presented the basic idea of Darwinism and the survival of the fittest, basically if you are dumb you will die. Collectively, London used naturalism to show how in life, humans can depend on nothing but themselves to survive. "To Build a Fire" is a short story that embodies the idea of naturalism and how, if one is not careful, nature will gain the upper hand and they will perish. When the narrator introduced the main character of the story, the man, he made it clear that the man was in a perilous situation involving the elements. The man was faced with weather that was 75 degrees below zero and he was not physically or mentally prepared for survival. London wrote that the cold "did not lead him to meditate upon his frailty as a creature of temperature, and upon man's frailty in general, able only to live within certain narrow limits of heat and cold."(p.1745) At first when the man started his journey to the camp, he felt certain that he could make it back to camp before dinner. As the trip progressed, the man made mistake after mistake that sealed his fate. The man's first mistake was to step into a pool of water and soak his legs to the knees. This blunder forced the man to build a fire to dry his wet socks and shoes so his feet would not freeze and become frostbitten. When the man began to build a fire he failed to notice that he was doing so under a large, snow laden spruce tree where he was getting his firewood. When the man had a small fire that was beginning to smolder the disturbance to the tree caused the snow to tumble to the ground and extinguish the fire. "It was his own fault or, rather, his mistake. He should not have built the fire under the spruce tree. He should have built it in the open."(1750). That minor detail of the critical placement of the fire ultimately cost the man his life. The third... ...t when he began to panic as the second fire extinguished. He seemed as though he had lost all knowledge of his survival skills. He thought about killing the dog and wallowing in its steaming insides for refuge from the cold. "The sight of the dog put a wild idea into his head. He remembered the tale of a man, caught in a blizzard, who killed a steer and crawled inside the carcass, and so was saved."(1752). When the man realized that the dog would not let him come near he was forced to concoct another plan. His idea was that if he ran all the way to the camp, he would be able to survive. Unfortunately, that plan failed as well and the man perished in the cold, numbing snow of the Yukon. Overall, naturalism is the most realistic literary movement. It parallels life more than any other movement because it reveals the fact that nature has not heart and no emotions. Nature feels no compassion for human struggles and will continue on it's path of destruction and harm regardless of the circumstances. Works Cited: London, Jack. "To Build A Fire." Sipiora, Phillip. Reading and Writing About Literature. Ed. Phillip Sipiora. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc., 2002. 149-158.